By Rahnuma Ahmed*
Recovering memory, recovering dignity
IT WAS 25th March, night. A Pakistani officer accompanied by soldiers entered their Dhaka University flat, dragged out Meghna’s father and and shot him. Jyotirmoy Guhathakurta was a well-known academic. He bled to death slowly, five days later. As he lay dying in Dhaka Medical College Hospital with a bullet wound in his neck, surrounded by doctors too scared to treat him, he repeatedly told Bashanti, his wife, you must write. Write what? History, he replied. But I don’t know how to write history. Well, write literature then. I met Meghna in 1973, the year we started college. Later, we went to Dhaka University together. As we became the closest of friends, I learnt that she would lie in bed each night and recollect the horror of that night in 1971. I would tell myself, I have to remember each incident, what happened, what followed. I must not let myself forget. Many years later, I remember asking her, ‘Megh, do you still do that? Recollect each scene, each incident…?’ ‘Yes, each night, after turning out the lights, I lie in bed and remember what happened, as it happened,’ was her reply.It is important to recover memories. To tell oneself that the world was not born this moment, to remind ourselves that we have long histories. Or else, says Uruguayan novelist Eduardo Galeano, we will become like the people of Chicago who do not know of the Haymarket martyrs, or that the First of May was born in Chicago. Chicago, Galeano writes, has ‘deleted’ the memory of International Workers Day, a day that is both a tragedy and a fiesta, a day celebrated the world over, one that affirms the right of the workers to organise. Our histories are both of betrayal, and dignity. We need to recover both.
The gift of a sewing machine
Adivasi activist Choles Ritchil was returning from a wedding on March 18, 2007 when his microbus was stopped. He was arrested by half a dozen plainclothesmen, and taken to the Khakraid army camp. Choles, along with other Mandi families of Modhupur forest, were opposed to the eviction of 25,000 Mandi people from the forest through the government scheme (2003) to construct an eco-park. Despite the Mandi opposition, forest department officials began constructing a high wall that would section off 3,000 acres of forest land. In January 2004 the police fired on peaceful Mandi protestors killing Piren Snal, and injuring 25 others. Public outrage at police brutality helped shelve eco-park plans, but forestry officials later filed 20 false cases against the Mandis. Choles, widely-respected and prominent, was implicated in these cases.At Khakraid, Choles was tied to the grill of a window, and beaten mercilessly. Then his torture began. The next day, police officials handed over his dead body to relatives. In accordance with religious custom, his body was bathed before burial. Those who did so said that it bore horrific signs of mutilation. Photographs, hurriedly taken, serve to document the marks of torture.Nearly seven months later, on October 10, members of the joint forces arranged a small ceremony in the Tangail upazila office. Choles’s first wife Sandhya Rani Simsang was given cash, a sari and a sewing machine. His second wife Serpina Nokrek was also given cash, a sari and a sewing machine.A sewing machine is said to signify connections. It connects the needle to the thread, stitches together separate pieces of cloth into a whole. But what does this sewing machine, born of torture and a mutilated body, connect? Mandi women’s eviction from the forest has also meant their eviction from indigenous traditions of weaving and sewing, traditions embedded in a matrilineal culture, says Pavel Partha, an ethno-botanist and an impassioned researcher. The state has torn the lives of Mandi women away from Modhupur forest, which is their culture. The extrajudicial killing of Choles Ritchil has torn to pieces the lives of Sandhya Rani, Serpina Nokrek, and their children. Tears that no sewing machine can repair.They say torturers often wear hoods. They shy away from eye contact with their victims. A last vestige of humanity? Maybe. And if so, it certainly offers us crumbs of hope.What happened at the Tangail gift-giving ceremony? Did the gift-givers look Sandhya and Serpina in the eye? How on earth did they get conscripted into the whole affair? Were they obliged to attend, to receive? Maybe, those directly involved in Choles’ death were not present. After all, six army and civilian personnel, including Major Toufiq Elahi and Tangail forest department official Abu Hanif Patwari were transferred soon after the death. A one-member investigation committee consisting of a judge was also set up (has the report been completed, submitted? No one seems to know). The point I wish to make is that the institutional nexus – army camp, forest department, thana, doctors, union council officials – within which Choles’s (and other adivasi) deaths have taken place, remains intact. That the gift-giving ceremony – an official event, funded by the public exchequer – took place within this nexus. The circumstances surrounding Choles Ritchil’s death is known to all, Mandi and Bengali alike. Pretences must have been necessary to pull off the ceremony. The presence of members of the joint forces, civilian administrators, elected representatives of the former government at the local level, professionals, etc must have shored up those pretences.I look forward to the Freedom of Information Act. I want to be able to read official files that contain an order to pick someone up. I want to know the language in which torture is camouflaged. I want to know the names of doctors who sign death certificates, the causes that are listed (death due to, surely not eyes plucked, testicles removed, anus mutilation, removal of fingernails). I want to know how forest officials are able to construct false cases implicating those who protest against the injustice of eviction.We need to know more about the rules of governance to weave tapestries of resistance across ethnic divides.
Rangs building: the death of chhotolok workers
Not all bodies have been recovered from the Rangs building. Not yet. Two or three remain. A faint smell of death, of decomposed flesh, still hangs over the fourth floor area.The bodies of all cyclone Sidr victims have not been recovered either, one keeps coming across newspaper reports of a child’s body found in a paddy field, a father’s body being identified by his son. But that, I feel, is different. Difference hinges partly on the word nature, a word, I admit, needs to be rethought in the context of global warming since ‘natural’ disasters are no longer natural.Rangs is a profoundly urban disaster. Compounded by the fact that the hapless workers who died come from villages, the stories that frame their migration, ‘they came to the city in search of work’ hide continued urban enrichment at the cost of villages. Images haunt me as I read what is written in the newspapers: it happened in five seconds, the roofs came tumbling down, they do not give us our dead, I cannot go off with my brother’s dead body, there are others from Modhukhali, their mothers and sisters and wives are waiting too. My two brothers got buried in the rubble. They are no longer alive. They must have died.I piece together the names of the dead. The names are scattered. Some crop up in the newspapers when bodies found are identified: Amirul, 26, Zillur, 24, Farid Mian. In other places, names of missing relatives mentioned by surviving workers. There are so many: Farid Sheikh, Delwar Sheikh, Jiru Molla, Kaijar Molla, Jahid Molla, Ruhul Amin, Mannan Shikdar, Abdur Rahim Sheikh, Daud Munshi, Jiblu. They are mentioned in passing, as if attached to bodies, to morgue identifications. A few days later, some more names. Some missing people have now been found dead: Farid Mian, 26, Zero Molla, 25, Kaiser Molla, 26, Mannan Sikder, 35, Daud Munshi. A day later, another name, Abdur Rahim. Again very young, only twenty-five. But, I think, what about Jahid, Jiblu, Firoj? A news item catches my eye: the Rangs group claims that security guard Shahid’s body is buried beneath the rubble. Four. It’s been nearly three and a half weeks now.I cannot imagine the extent of the nightmare for family members who have been wandering about in the rubble of Rangs Bhaban, looking for traces of their beloved, maybe a pillow, the corner of a lungi, a shirt sleeve. Priscilla Raj, independent journalist, had written of an elderly, bearded man, standing outside Rangs, bitterly saying, ‘We are chhotolok, why should anyone bother?’ He was right. No one did. There was no moddholok collective presence outside the building, no strong support for Nirman Sramik Union’s demand that compensation for the dead be four lakh taka, not one. Dhaka’s moddholok, no doubt horror-struck, were witnesses to the disaster from a distance made safe by television and print media. I myself and many others were outside the National Museum. We were protesting against archaeological artefacts being sent to Guimet. Those who joined in the wake outside the Rangs building were people like those dead or missing, part of the urban dispossessed.They witnessed grief at close quarters.In this city’s landscape, the history of Rangs workers will be one of dignity. And ours that of betrayal.
*Rahnuma Ahmed, anthropologist, independent researcher and photographer. She can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org